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Solar Generated Energy is complimented by Energy Storage, Wind Generation & Bio-Gas Generation.

Where did Solar Energy come from ?

In 1839 Edmund Becquerel, a French experimental physicist, first discovered the evidence of the Photovoltaic effect (Solar Energy).

Australia is one of the world’s “solar hot zones", as most of Australia provides maximum exposure to the sun’s rays throughout the year, and this abundant energy source is FREE.  So if you Invest Smartly, you will be Energy Independent for well over the next 20+ years!

In 2018 Australia became the largest up-taker of Solar on the planet, even though Australia only contributes to less than 1% of the planets pollution.

It's said Peak Solar Export charges are coming ! All because of incompetent Bureaucrats in the Energy sector have little Vision, other than Taxing those Supporting the Clean Energy movement.

Instead, the Power Distributors should be Investing in Energy Storage at the Sub-stations that have an oversupply of Power, that commonly happen around midday, due to Lazy Cave-man Roof top Solar Installers not spending more time Spreading the Solar Panel installation between East, North & West, thus Spreading Generation evenly & further across the daylight hours!

The Smart Micro Grid Owner should be Storing there Excess energy to consume at Solar Sun-set or in extended Bad weather, rather than selling there un-used daytime Energy for a cheap 8cents Feed-in-Tariff (FIT), and then getting Slugged over 300% more for importing energy back through the Retailer after Sunset !

All Energy Retailers on-sell Your excess energy to Non Solar Neighbours at peak rates, making over 300% profit from your energy, all whilst Solar Owners/Prosumers have to pay $30 a Month, just to remain State Grid connected.

The $30 monthly connection charge alone, nets the Retailers a profit of over $110 month ($1'350 year), because it takes 375kWh Energy a month to just cover the connection Fee, if you are getting @$0.08c kWh FIT, all other excess Energy only benefits the deceptively named Energy Retailers, that only supply you with a power Bill !

Energy Independence Starts with Storing at least the kWh of Energy Consumed between Solar-sunset & Sunrise, any additional Energy can then be sold.  Your overnight consumption may be covered by a Single 5kWh Battery Storage Module or larger.

WARNING: The term "Tier 1 Panels" used by may ill-informed Retailers is deceptive & misleading statement !

"Tier rating" has NOTHING to do with the Quality of the solar panels or any guarantee the panels are free from defects or will perform over the 25~30 year life offered by manufacturers !   The Tier rating system was developed by "Bloomberg New Energy Finance Corporation" to rate solar panel manufacturers in terms of Financial Stability, again, Tier-1 is NOT a reference to solar panel quality or performance. This is why a manufacturers reputation and history are just as important as their perceived quality.

We PURCHASE High-Quality Solar Panels directly from the manufactures that make there own solar cells!

These panels offer the best combination of raw material like low-iron glass and special soldering process, that benefit the PV cell with much less mechanical stress, which lowers the risk of hot spots, degradation and micro cracks.   We DON'T offer Solar Panels less than 500W.

  1. 500W, BlueSun BSM500PM5-72SB Shingled Call Solar Panels (.pdf), with PERC Technology (1956mm x 1330mm x 45mm =2.601m2, 25kg each)
  2. 585W, Tiger Pro 72HL4-(V) Mono-Facial Solar Panels (.pdf), with PERC Technology (2278mm x 1334mm x 45mm =2.278m2, 28kg each)
  3. 700W Bluesun BSM700PMB6-70SDC Double Glazed, Bi-facial, Shingled, Monocrystalline Solar Panels (2384mm x 1303mm x 35mm =3.106m2, 39kg each)
  4. 715W Risen RSM132-8-690-715BHDG Bi-facial, Monocrystalline Solar Panels (2384mm x 1303mm x 33mm =3.106m2, 37.5kg each)

Please Note: We mainly market Dual Axis-solar Radiation Trackers (DART) as DART Racking is irrefutably the best at Generating solar energy, as the Panels automatically face perpendicular to the Sun or the Brightest area of the Sky from dawn to dusk.  We don't offer (cave-man) Fixed Rooftop Solar Racking (your installer may offer there own preferred Roof railings & brackets), expect to pay approx. $10~$20 per panel for racking.

However, on request we can provide Tin or Tile Roof Railings, Brackets or adjustable Tilted angle Bracket for Flat roof Racking !

In Australia Flat mounted & Fixed Tilted panel Racking are the least efficient at Generating energy, as they can only Generate peak energy for approx. 2 hours per day depending on your latitude location, where DART Unit's peak energy Generating starts at 9.5~12.5+ hours per day, and the further south you live the better, as a DART unit Generates more energy, due to the Sun's arch in the sky!

NB: We have three DART foundation units that are purposely over engineered;

1) Foundation Pole with top & bottom flanges, designed to be Buried & Cemented in firm Ground.

2) Two types of Spider Foundation types offered;

a) Dyna-bolt fixed Horizontal Spider Foundation legs secured atop a Cement slab or,

b) Galvanised Ground Screw foundation, that eliminate the need for Cement & allows for immediate Installation or easy Relocation if required, the same as Dyna-bolt unit.

3) Cement Block Foundation, these are the slowest foundation to install as they require a large square of ground to be excavated, then a steel re-bar cage, form-work & parts need to be cemented into the hole & the let cure for several days.

Solar Panels using KPF back-sheet technology are using a more Advanced back-sheet: The KPF back-sheet achieves TPT and KPK standards in terms of weather-ability, and is better than TPT or KPK in terms of heat dissipation and reflectivity. KPF back-sheet are already used in BlueSun, JAsolar, TrinaSolar, Canadian Solar as the main back-sheet or upgraded back-sheet.

In 2022 those selling solar panels under 445W, are selling customers short !  As 445W~700W panels Generate substantially more energy per panel respectively, than older 270W panels, 270W panels (166cm x 99cm =1.64m2) use 15~37% larger footprint (racking area) to Generate the same kWh energy!

All Quality solar panels should last well over 30 years, where 270W panels just won't Generate the same energy, thus taking way longer to reach the Return-On-Investment (ROI) break-even point, before providing ongoing profit!

The Solar Credits program is part of Australia’s Renewable Energy Target, where every megawatt hour of qualifying energy generation is eligible for renewable energy certificates (REC). These certificates come in two types: Large-scale generation certificates (LGC's) & Small-scale technology certificates (STC's), these are Traded as STC's or REC's apply to installations less than 100kW system.

Eligible Small-scale Technology Certificates (STC) generation units:

It is important to ensure that you are informed about what type of system you should install, the systems and components that are approved and eligible under the small-scale renewable energy target, and the financial benefits you may be entitled to.

The STC Criteria:

To be eligible for small-scale technology certificates (STC), small generation units, including solar photovoltaic panels, wind turbines, and hydro systems, must be installed no more than 12 months prior to the creation of certificates, and have its panels and inverter, listed on the Clean Energy Council list of approved components that meet Australian standards, and use a Clean Energy Council accredited installer and meet the Clean Energy Council design and install guidelines​ comply with all local, state, territory and federal requirements, including electrical safety.

To be classified as small-scale, being;

  1. Solar panel system with a capacity of no more than 100kW, and a Total Annual electricity output less than 250MWh.
  2. Wind system that has a capacity of no more than 10kW, and a total annual electricity output of less than 25MWh.
  3. Hydro system that has a capacity of no more than 6.4kW, and a total annual electricity output of less than 25MWh.

If the small-generation unit is larger than the capacity limits listed above, it will be classified as a power station and must be accredited as a power station under the Large-scale Renewable Energy Target. If accreditation is successful, the unit may be eligible for large-scale generation certificates.

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If you purchase TV specials, offering 6kW+ Solar array, we really don't care, BUT read the small print, we suggest you ask them the cost difference to install a Hybrid inverter, as after the installation you will commonly find you have been sold a Solar Only inverter, meaning, if you later install batteries, you will need to purchase a new Hybrid inverter or an AC converter and additional switching gear, that in turn cost more and uses additional energy to operate, than if you initially purchasing a Hybrid inverter in the first place!

NB: We only supply quality Mono-crystalline 350W (72 cell, 196cm x 99cm =1.94m2) and 500W (96 cell, 196cm x 131cm =2.57m2) Solar Modules, as DART units & Batteries are a bigger part of the disruptive force currently happening in the energy market!

The biggest marketing spin/cons of many Solar companies is, they say words to the effect;

  • "Tear-1 Panels are best !". That is incorrect, "tier1 panels", simply means the supplier/manufacturer sold the most panels, and that is Not a true indication of panel quality. Always go for Panel Manufacturer that manufacturers there own PV Cells!
  • The best size solar array is 6kW array! Another marketing Con, as Retailers want to claim Your STC's or REC's.
    A 6kW array is Not correctly matched to your daily energy usage, unless you consume over 25kWh Day!
    Purchasing less solar panels & invest the savings on Energy storage, in most cases it will save you paying 300% more for the power you consume after sunset, than ant feed-in Tariff, it is that simple!
  • STC are based on the amount of panels install, the more money the suppliers/installers claimed back.
    However, what many companies/installers don't tell you when you sign over your STC, they claimed your STC as there little cash stash, the STC are usually way more than the installation costsNew Window, this is Not widely stated, ring around and ask for a cost breakdown inc. what the installers/installation cost are, for the system you are looking to purchase.

Understand that STC & REC can be claimed back by the system ownerNew Window, up to 12 months after installation, in 2019 you can claim up to 12 years worth of STC or REC, due to end in 2030New Window.

If a company has the customers best interested at the forefront, they would be advising you to purchase a solar array equal to your daily power consumption, and battery storage to cover sunset to sunrise consumption, it's very simple to add panels at any time.

This is where things get more complicated, we will try to make this simple;

  1. In Australia a 5kW inverter is generally the largest most Retailers say you can install, there is no real restriction on the size of the solar array, people with a large array will be supplying there Non solar neighbours with there power.
  2. All Tilted roof-top solar panels, will only Generate 4~4.5 hours maximum peak energy per day!
    This is where Batteries & DART, become a serous game changer!
  3. Where a DART unit will Generate energy for 10~11 hours day, double the energy, & requires less panels.
  4. So, before you purchase your energy system, we advice you take the 'reading of your power meter just before sunset, and again at sunrise', this is Very important, as it tells you the minimum kWh size Battery you premises requires to become power independent.
  5. Batteries should rarely support your power usage during the day, except for in a blackout or extended bad weather conditions, Battery are commonly used for power demands after sunset, providing you with overnight power independence!

So Remember: A Solar array matches to your 24 hour power consumption, instantly allows you to eliminates your daytime power bill - Although the real savings only start when you store the excess power in a battery, and Generate it after sunset, it is that simple!

Yes, 350W & 500W panels cost a little more, but calculates out to approx. the same cost per Watt, as the old 270W panels, the main advantage is the larger Wattage panels considerably increase the daily kWh Generation rate, and also reduce the break-even time line considerably quicker!

There are also 400~490W Bi-facial (clear & opaque double sided) solar Panels that generate power from both sides, this is done by Generating up to 20% more Power via harvesting Reflective light from the surrounding ground/area, these panels can be installed in areas like foyers & walkways, that would normally have glass windows.

Things are changing rapidly in the solar world, so don't be fooled into purchasing 270W panels, even though these older panel technology should/will last 25 years, they just require a larger footprint !

Types of Solar Panel Installation;

Fixed Flat or Tilted Solar Arrays: Are the lease effective at Generating energy !

Single-Axis Solar Tracking Arrays: Increase energy Generate by over 30%, SAT can be configured to Track East~West Vertically or Horizontally.

Dual-Axis Solar Tracking Arrays: Are capable of Generating up to 100% more power than fixed flat panel arrays.

NB: With DART the further South (or North) of the equator increases the solar Generating time up to 14 hours south of Hobart, Tasmania, where Brisbane, QLD that will be approx. 10 hours peak sun.

With most things it comes down to Cost, cost modelling show that Labour to install Fixed & Fixed Tilt PV systems are the cheapest, followed by Single Axis Tracking then Dual Axis Tracking system is least competitive to install, however the initial material & installation cost difference is recovered quite rapidly with SAT and more-so with DART, as the increased Generation commonly reaches the break-even period to recover the additional installation cost incurred in approx. 12 months, irrelevant on the size of the PV array!

Not all technologies preformed equal, as labour costs for installation play a large part of initial and final cost competitiveness. It also demonstrated how Low Cost of Energy (LCOE) can underpin a commercial ‘Contract-for-Difference’ (CFD) feed-in tariff scheme applicable to supporting investment in utility-scale solar farms.

The key issue for either residential or commercial solar system, is producing the best financial return in the quickest time, in an off-grid system, this is done by storing what would normally be unused/wasted Solar energy into a battery bank or thermal storage system.

Energy storage does two things, contribute to black-out proofing your home or premises after sun-set, where if you are grid connected, the excess energy will first charge your batteries, before exporting any excess energy into the state grid for a FIT, and as such minimising paying the deceptive electricity retainers for power after sunset, and battery storage energy also reduce the reliance on fossil fuels, to ensure a brighter future for our planet!

Few people know that Solar Generation & storage has the potential to provide over 1,000 times the total world energy consumption, though in 2017 Solar provided less than 1% of the total power used.   Installing solar contributes to increasing that figure.

What is the best installation angle for Fixed & Single-axis solar panels ?

The latitudinal tilt angle of fixed panels directly relate to angle of the sun in the sky, and depends on both the season and your location on the planet. In Winter the sun is Lower in the sky, and in Summer the sun is Higher in the sky.

So, the closer you live to the equator, the higher the sun is in the sky all year round, & the lower your degree of latitude tilt is.

NB: DART is excluded, as they automatically tilt perpendicular (straight at) to the Sun !

So, calculating the optimum tilt for fixed tilted panels on your roof is actually dead simple.  To maximize the power produced over the whole year, all you need to do is set the angle for your solar panels, to the latitude of your location as shown below;



Cape York (QLD)


Darwin (NT)


Cairns (QLD)


Broome (WA) 


Townsville (QLD)


Port Hedland (WA)


Rockhampton (QLD) 


Alice Springs (NT)


Brisbane (QLD)


Tamworth (NSW)


Perth (WA)


Newcastle (NSW)


Sydney (NSW)


Canberra (NSW)


Adelaide (SA)


Melbourne (VIC)


Hobart (TAS)


Yes, Perth latitude is actually at a higher latitude than Sydney!

Dual Axis Slew Drive.   Dual Axis Slew Drive.

New R&D Designed fully automatic DART-1 using a Double Slew bearing design, will hold 1x 700W solar panel.

This Dual-axis Tracking (DART-4) Unit can hold up to 4x 550W or 700W solar panels.

Dual Axis Slew Drive.   Dual Axis Tracker

This fully automatic Dual-axis Tracking (DART-8) unit, can hold either 8x 550W or 6x 700W Panels.


Bespoke Single Axis-solar Tracker units are in development, these will hold from 450W~700W Solar panels.

Remember: DART can Generate over 50% more energy than flat fixed panels, and the further South you live, a DART increases the Generation of energy due to the arch of the Sun in the sky!

HISTORIC & New Solar CELL Technology:

In 1985 a Super Solar Multi-junction (MJ) Cell was invented at the Australian University of New South Wales (UNSW), where it gained and still holds the world efficiency record of over 40%, these solar cells are made from Gallium Arsenide (GaAs), with a triple stack of photovoltaic layers, not Silicon (Si) like in conventional solar modules.

Due to past cost and heat issues, Gallium Arsenide solar modules were only used in space exploration on Satellites. 

After receiving a million dollar government grant, RayGen, an Australian company has further developed the technology, and is now manufacturing scalable commercial solar array units of 200kW each, RayGen uses multiple GaAs cells in conjunction with Heliostat mirrors.

Amazingly a 2kW Gallium arsenide Super cell measure approx. 10cm x 15cm (yes, very small) and replaces approx. Four (4) 500W (200cm x 100cml) Solar Panels.

In 2019, another promising solar cell technology is being developed with a base of common Crystalline silicon, with additional thin film layers of Amorphous silicon on either side of the cell, forming what is known as the HeteroJunction, as opposed to the common P-N junction cells.  The multi-layer heterojunction cells have the potential to drastically increase efficiency with lab testing achieving efficiencies up to 26.5% when combined !


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